International Stereoscopic Union


A Glossary of Stereoscopic Terms

vectograph (adv.)

A form of polarisation-coded stereogram (originally devised by the Polaroid company) in which the images are mounted on the front and rear surfaces of a transparent base, and are viewed by polarised light or through polarised filters. The polarised equivalent of an anaglyph stereogram.

Verascope format, progression

see format, progression and European format.


Proprietary name of a commercial stereo print viewing system (utilising angled periscope-type mirrors) for over-and-under mounted prints; the name now also being used to identify this mounting format.


Proprietary name of a commercial stereo transparency image display and viewing system utilising stereo pairs (7 in total) mounted in a circular rotating holder, and viewed with a purpose-made stereo viewer.

virtual reality

A system of computer-generated 3-D images (still or moving) viewed by means of a headset linked to the computer which incorporates left-eye and right-eye electronic displays. The controlling software programs often enables the viewer to move interactively within the environment or 'see' 360° around a scene by turning the head, and also to 'grasp' virtual objects in the scene by means of an electronically-linked glove.

Wheatstone stereoscope

A 'reflecting' or mirror stereoscope in which a pair of images (which need to be reversed) are placed facing each other at either end of a horizontal bar and viewed through a pair of angled mirrors fixed midway between them. Named after Sir Charles Wheatstone who devised this earliest form of stereoscope in 1832, prior to the advent of photography.



International Stereoscopic Union
8008 Zurich

Phone: +41 (44) 508 1024